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Substitutions to Use in a Pinch!DAIRY
BUTTER 1 cup equals 7/8 oil or 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons solid shortening plus 1/2 teaspoon salt. Also, 1 cup equals 1 cup margarine.
BUTTERMILK 1 cup equals 1 cup plain yogurt.
CREAM (half and half) 1 cup equals 1 1/2 tablespoons melted butter plus about 7/8 cup milk, or use 1/2 cup light cream and 1/2 cup milk.
CREAM (light) 1 cup light cream equals 7/8 cup milk plus 3 tablespoons melted butter.
CREAM (heavy) 1 cup heavy cream equals 3/4 cup milk plus 1/3 cup melted butter. You cannot use this a a substitute for making whipped cream
CREAM (whipping) 1 cup whipping cream equals 2/3 cup well chilled evaporated milk, whipped, or 1 cup nonfat dry milk powder whipped with 1 cup ice water.
Cultured Sour Cream 1 cup cultured sour cream equals 1/3 cup melted butter plus 3/4 cup buttermilk or plain yogurt. For dips, 1 cup equals 1 cup cottage cheese pureed with 1/4 cup yogurt or buttermilk, or 6 ounces cream cheese plus enough milk to make 1 cup.
MILK (non-fat) 1 cup skim equals 1/3 cup instant nonfat dry milk plus about 3/4 cup water.
Sour MILK 1 tablespoon lemon juice or distilled white vinegar Added to milk to make 1 cup.
MILK (whole-milk) 1 cup equals 1 cup skim milk plus 2 teaspoons melted butter;
1 cup equals 1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water;
1 cup equals 1/4 cup dry whole milk plus 7/8 cup water;
1 cup equals 1 cup reconstituted nonfat dry milk plus 2 1/2 teaspoons melted butter or margarine;
1 cup equals 1 cup soy milk: in baking you may substitute 1 cup fruit juice for 1 cup milk.
YOGURT 1 cup equals 1 cup buttermilk.
For 1 cup sour cream, use 1 cup plain yogurt or 1 cup evaporated milk plus 1 to 1 1/2 tablespoons vinegar.
For 1 cup butter milk or sour milk, use 1 cup yogurt. Or mix 1 tablespoon vinegar or lemon juice to sweet milk to make 1 cup; stand for a few minutes before adding to recipe.
Instead of sour cream, use 1 tablespoon lime or lemon juice plus 1/3 cup buttermilk plus 1 cup smooth cottage cheese, blend until smooth in blender.
For 1 pound butter, beat 2 cups evaporated milk SLOWLY until butter forms; pour into pan and chill. Or, beat 1 cup buttermilk, 1/2 cup salad oil and 1 teaspoon salt into 1 pound of margarine.
For thickening In sauces and custards, 2 egg yolks equals 1 egg. Do not mix directly into hot sauce---the egg will cook too fast.
For baking 2 egg yolks plus 1 tablespoon cold water equals 1 egg.
For measuring 1 1/2 tablespoons stirred egg yolks equals 1 egg yolk;
2 tablespoons stirred egg whites equals 1 egg white;
3 tablespoons mixed broken yolks and whites equals 1 medium size egg;
6 medium eggs equal about 1 cup;
5 large eggs equal about 1 cup;
4 extra large eggs equal about 1 cup;
10 egg whites equal about 1 cup;
12 large yolks equal about 1 cup
ALLSPICE 1 teaspoon equals 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon and 18 teaspoon ground cloves.
BAY LEAF 1/4 teaspoon crushed equals about 1 whole bay leaf.
CAROB POWDER 3 tablespoons plus 2 tablespoons water equals 1 ounce unsweetened chocolate.
CHOCOLATE For 1 square semi-sweetened chocolate, use 3 tablespoons cocoa plus 1 tablespoon butter or margarine plus 3 tablespoons sugar.
CHOCOLATE 1 ounce unsweetened equals 3 tablespoons carob powder plus 2 tablespoons water; 1 ounce unsweetened equals 3 tablespoons cocoa plus 1 tablespoon butter or other kind of fat; 1 ounce unsweetened plus 4 teaspoons sugar equals 1 2/3 ounces semi-sweet chocolate.
COFFEE 1/2 cup strong brewed coffee equals 1 teaspoon instant coffee in 1/2 cup water.
GARLIC 1 clove equals 1/8 teaspoon garlic powder or instant minced garlic.
GINGER 1 tablespoon grated fresh equals 1 teaspoon powdered or 1 tablespoon candied with sugar washed off.
HERBS In general, 1 tablespoon fresh equals about 1/2 teaspoon dried.
MUSTARD 1 tablespoon prepared equals 1 teaspoon dried. For 1 tablespoon mustard, use 1 teaspoon dry mustard plus 1 tablespoon vinegar or white wine.
ONION 1 small fresh chopped onion equals 1 tablespoon instant minced onion or 1/4 cup frozen chopped onion; 1 tablespoon onion powder equals 1 medium-sized fresh onion
SOY SAUCE 1/4 cup equals 3 tablespoon Worcestershire sauce plus 1 tablespoon water.
WINE for marinades, 1/2 cup equals 1/4 cup vinegar plus 1 tablespoon sugar plus 1/4 cup water.
WORCESTERSHIRE SAUCE 1 teaspoon equals 1 tablespoon soy sauce plus dash of hot pepper sauce
For thickening 1 tablespoon all-purpose equals 2 teaspoons quick-cooking tapioca (use only for soups); 1 tablespoon equals 1 1/2 teaspoons cornstarch or potato starch.
CAKE FLOUR 1 cup equals 1 cup minus 2 tablespoons sifted all-purpose flour.
ALL-PURPOSE Flour 1 cup equals 1 1/4 cups cake flour;
1 cup equals 5/8 cup potato flour;
1 cup equals 1 1/4 cup rye or coarsely ground whole-grain flour;
1 cup equals 1 cup cornmeal.
SELF RISING FLOUR 1 cup all-purpose flour plus 1 1/2 teaspoon baking powder plus 1/2 teaspoon salt.
FOR 1 CUP ALL-PURPOSE FLOUR 1 cup minus 2 tablespoons whole wheat flour.
BAKING POWDER If you don't have Baking Powder, you can make do with one of these three substitutes---depending on the recipe.
1) 1 teaspoon baking powder equals 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar;
2) 1 teaspoon baking powder equals 1/2 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 cup buttermilk or plain yogurt:
3) 1 teaspoon baking powder also equals 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/3 cup molasses. When using the substitutions that include liquid, reduce other liquid in recipe accordingly.
BROWN SUGAR 1 cup firmly packed equals 1 cup granulated sugar. For 1 cup brown sugar 2 tablespoons molasses plus 1 cup white sugar. Best used in cookies and other cooked products.
CONFECTIONERS SUGAR 1 3/4 cups equals 1 cup granulated sugar, but do not substitute in baking.
CORN SYRUP 2 cups corn syrup equals 1 cup granulated sugar, but be careful when substituting. Never use corn syrup to replace more than half the amount of sugar called for in a recipe. In baking, try not to substitute at all but if you must, for each 2 cups sugar, reduce the liquid called for (other than syrup) by 1/4 cup.
HONEY 1 cup equals 1 1/4 cup sugar. For baking, decrease liquid in recipe by 1/4 cup. If there is no liquid in the recipe, add 1/4 cup flour. Unless sour cream or sour milk is used in recipe, add a pinch of baking soda.
GRANULATED SUGAR 1 cup equals 1 3/4 cup confectioners sugar but do not substitute in baking;
1 cup equals 1 cup packed brown sugar;
1 cup equals 1 cup super-fine sugar;
1 cup plus 1/4 cup whatever liquid is used in recipe equals 1 cup corn syrup;
1 1/4 cups sugar plus 1/3 cup liquid equals 1 cup honey;
3/4 cup sugar equals 1 cup un-sulphured molasses (in baking, decrease liquid for each cup of molasses, omit any baking powder and add 1/2 teaspoon baking soda.)
MAPLE SYRUP 1 cup equals 1/2 cup maple sugar. To substitute for sugar in cooking, generally use only 3/4 cup maple syrup for sugar. To substitute maple syrup for sugar in baking, use the same proportions, but reduce the other liquid called for in the recipe by about 3 tablespoons for every cup of syrup substituted.
Sorghum or MOLASSES 1 cup un-sulphured molasses equals 3/4 cup sugar. In baking, decrease the liquid by 1/4 cup for each cup of molasses, omit any baking powder and add 1/2 teapoon
TOMATO BASED: (for soups, sauces)
KETCHUP 1/2 cup equals 1/2 cup tomato sauce plus 2 tablespoons sugar, 1 tablespoon vinegar and 1/8 teaspoons ground cloves; 1 tablespoon equals 1 tablespoon tomato paste.
TOMATOES 1 cup canned tomatoes equals 1 1/3 cups chopped fresh tomatoes, simmered
TOMATO JUICE 1 cup tomato juice equals 1/2 cup tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup water plus dash of salt and sugar. Or use one part tomato paste to three parts water plus salt and sugar.
TOMATO PUREE 1 cup equals 1/2 cup tomato paste plus 1/2 cup water.
TOMATO SAUCE 1 cup equals 1 (6 ounce) can tomato paste plus 1 1/2 cans water. Or 2 cups equals 3/4 cup tomato paste plus 1 cup water.
TOMATO SOUP 1 (10 3/4 ounce) can equals 1 cup tomato sauce plus 1/4 cup water.
BREAD CRUMBS 1 slice bread equals 1/4 cup dry bread crumbs;
1 slice bread equals 1/2 cup soft bread crumbs;
1 cup dry bread crumbs equals 3/4 cup cracker crumbs.
YEAST 1 package equals 2 1/4 teaspoons.
Instead of 1 Cup of each item below You Can Use...
1 cup self-rising flour - 1 cup all-purpose flour plus 1½ teaspoons baking powder and 1/8 teaspoon salt
1 cup cake flour - 1 cup minus 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour
1 cup light-brown sugar - 1 cup white granulated sugar plus 1 tablespoon molasses
1 cup molasses - Ύ cup dark-brown sugar plus Ό cup water
1 cup whole-wheat flour - 7/8 cup all-purpose flour plus 2 tablespoons wheat germ